This volume's central purpose is to provide a clearly written, scholarly exploration of cultural variation regarding conflict resolution and in so doing, highlight certain alternatives to violence. It presents an interdisciplinary examination of how conflicts are perceived and handled in a variety of cultural settings. Drawing on data and models from anthropology, psychology, and political science, the chapters analyze conflict resolution across the societal spectrum, including cases from Western and non-Western traditions, complex and tribal societies, and violent and non-violent cultures. While demonstrating the extremely important impact of culture on conflict resolution processes, the book does not solely emphasize cultural specificity. Rather--through introductory chapters, section introductions, and a concluding chapter--the volume editors draw attention to cross-cultural patterns in an attempt to further the search for more general conflict principles. An explicit message throughout the book is that alternatives to violence exist.
The volume demonstrates that at various levels--from the interpersonal to the international-- conflicts can be handled in ways that cause far less pain and destruction than violence. Chapters by psychologists discuss social and cognitive processes for facilitating the learning of alternatives to violence among children and youth. Anthropology contributors explore mechanisms for dealing with social conflict which allow some cultures to remain relatively peaceful and consider implications of their work for reducing violence in other societies. Chapters by former President of Costa Rica, Oscar Arias, and by political scientists examine how non-violent political solutions can be employed as alternatives to warfare and violent resistence.
- Contents: J.P. Scott, Foreword. Preface. Part I:Introduction and Theoretical Considerations. D.P. Fry, K. Bjorkqvist, Introduction: Conflict Resolution Themes. D.P. Fry, C.B. Fry, Culture and Conflict Resolution Models: Exploring Alternatives to Violence. K. Bjorkqvist, The Inevitability of Conflict, But Not of Violence: Theoretical Considerations on Conflict and Aggression. Part II:Cultural Influences and Conflict Resolution. J. Galtung, Conflict Life Cycles in Occident and Orient. C.A. Robarchek, A Community of Interests: Semai Conflict Resolution. D. Hollan, Conflict Avoidance and Resolution Among the Toraja of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. H.B.K. Cook, Conflict Resolution in Native Margariteno Society. E.G. Olson, Leaving Anger Outside the Kava Circle: A Setting for Conflict Resolution in Tonga. Part III:The Challenge of Resolving Ethnic Conflict. C. Nordstrom, The Eye of the Storm: From War to Peace--Examples From Sri Lanka and Mozambique. M.M. McCormick, Avoidance Strategies in Northern Ireland. J. Hjarpe, Historiography and Islamic Vocabulary in War and Peace: A Memento for Conflict Resolution in the Muslim World. S.F. Landau, Conflict Resolution in a Highly Stressful Society: The Case of Israel. I.M. Glazer, Beyond the Competition of Tears: Black-Jewish Conflict Containment in a New York Neighborhood. Part IV:Conflict Resolution as an Alternative to War. O. Arias, Esquipulas II: The Management of Regional Crisis. M.K. Meyer, Cooperation in Conflict: The Latin American Diplomatic Style of Cooperation in the Face of Foreign Threats. M. Klicperova, I.K. Feierabend, C.R. Hofstetter, Nonviolent Conflict Resolution and Civic Culture: The Case of Czechoslovakia. Section V:Socialization for Conflict Resolution. K. osterman, K. Bjorkqvist, K.M.J. Lagerspetz, with S.F. Landau, A. Fraczek, C. Pastorelli, Sex Differences in Styles of Conflict Resolution: A Developmental and Cross-Cultural Study With Data From Finland, Israel, Italy, and Poland. N.G. Guerra, L.D. Eron, L.R. Huesmann, P.H. Tolan, R.V. Acker, A Cognitive/Ecological Approach to the Prevention and Mitigation of Violence and Aggression in Inner-City Youth. D. Olweus, Tackling Peer Victimization with a School-Based Intervention Program. Part VI:Conclusions. E. Wiesel, D.P. Fry, On Respecting Others and Preventing Hate: A Conversation With Elie Wiesel. K. Bjorkqvist, D.P. Fry, Conclusions: Alternatives to Violence.