This compilation opens with a contribution towards understanding the molecular mechanism of acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition activity and its modulation, which will lead to the development of better Alzheimer disease drugs. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitors are drugs indicated for the treatment of disease, as well as several other important applications in medical treatments. The authors review what is currently known about the effects of interleukin-6, a well-known inflammation mediator, on the respiratory system. Papers are presented showing a general worsening of respiratory mechanics parameters both in animal experimentation and in humans. Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 22 also discusses Graves' orbitopathy, known also as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, the most common and debilitating extrathyroid manifestation of Graves' disease. Additionally, the authors discuss diabetic nephropathyis, a major micro-vascular complication of diabetes mellitus known to be the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The clinical calculation, techniques of measurement and regulation of cardiac ejection fraction is examined. Cardiac ejection fraction is defined as the volume of blood that is ejected by the ventricle during each contraction. The concluding study aims to study the socioeconomic conditions of Beedi rollers to assess the health disturbances acquired as occupational hazards.