This second edition includes eleven new sections based on the approximation of matrix functions, deflating the solution space and improving the accuracy of approximate solutions, iterative solution of initial value problems of systems of ordinary differential equations, and the method of trial functions for boundary value problems. The topics of the two new chapters are integral equations and mathematical optimization. The book provides alternative solutions to software tools amenable to hand computations to validate the results obtained by "black box" solvers. It also offers an insight into the mathematics behind many CAD, CAE tools of the industry. The book aims to provide a working knowledge of the various approximation techniques for engineering practice.