Microcharacterization of materials is a rapidly advancing field. Among the many electron and ion probe techniques, the cathodoluminescence mode of an electron probe instrument has reached a certain maturity, which is reflected by an increas- ing number of publications in this field. The rapid rate of progress in applications of cathodoluminescence techniques in characterizing inorganic solids has been especially noticeable in recent years. The main purpose of the book is to outline the applications of cath- odoluminescence techniques in the assessment of optical and electronic proper- ties of inorganic solids, such as semiconductors, phosphors, ceramics, and min- erals. The assessment provides, for example, information on impurity levels derived from cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, analysis of dopant concentra- tions at a level that, in some cases, is several orders of magnitude lower than that attainable by x-ray microanalysis, the mapping of defects, and the determination of carrier lifetimes and the charge carrier capture cross sections of impurities. In order to make the book self-contained, some basic concepts of solid-state phys- ics, as well as various cathodoluminescence techniques and the processes leading to luminescence phenomena in inorganic solids, are also described. We hope that this book will be useful to both scientists and graduate students interested in microcharacterization of inorganic solids. This book, however, was not intended as a definitive account of cathodoluminescence analysis of in- organic solids. In considering the results presented here, readers should re- member that many materials have properties that vary widely as a function of preparation conditions.