Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Traditionally, high consumption of coffee has been considered to have negative health consequences due to the stimulant effects of caffeine. However, there is substantial evidence that coffee contains a range of bioactive compounds and antioxidants with potentially beneficial effects on human health. Chapter One presents a review of the works of research that have been developed in order to establish the functional potential of coffee, either raw or roasted and its byproducts. Chapter Two studies the extraction of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of coffee brews. Chapter Three focuses on two factors, aroma and geographic provenance, namely the geographic origin and the roasting procedure, and aims at providing a systematic assessment of the chemical compounds that are mainly responsible for the quality of coffee samples. Chapter Four focuses on the properties of spend coffee ground (SCG), based on its composition and structural organization, and the complex enzyme necessary for its conversion, highlighting its impact on biotechnology and bioenergy process. Chapter Five examines an optimal range of extraction conditions for extraction of polyphenols from espresso SCG by using response surface methodology and to investigate in vitro effects of obtained polyphenol-rich extracts on platelets activation and their aggregation with monocytes and neutrophiles. Chapter Six evaluates sensory acceptance and the effect of the expectations caused by information and the packaging characteristics of instant coffee. Chapter Seven overviews emerging evidence for the protective effects of coffee and its bioactive compounds on ocular health. Chapter Eight discusses coffee contaminated with Ochratoxin and genotoxicity. Chapter Nine studies health and health risks of the substances found in coffee.