This book is about the ongoing transition of fisheries governance, from top-down command and control towards a more transparent and participatory form. It focuses on the emergence of research practices and advice frameworks that allow co-creation of common knowledge bases for management. Drawing from 8 years of research in GAP, a two-stage 7th framework EU project, the book offers a critical examination of how knowledge practices in fisheries governance are changing. The entry point for this research is a series of practical experiments in the unchartered terrain of collaborative research. To gain insight into the ongoing transition in European fisheries management, GAP initiated and carried out 13 Case Studies in different settings across Europe. In each case study, a team of fishers and marine scientists worked together to identify, plan and implement research projects intended to make a difference. The cases vary. They take on different management issues and shape the collaborations in different ways. The extent to which they succeed in realizing their objectives also differs. They are all contributing important insights into the possibilities of co-creating knowledge for management purposes. The book delves into the individual experiences of each case study as well as the lessons they contribute as a whole. The examination concludes that while research partnerships are not always easy to establish, they are an important step towards better fisheries governance. Without a common knowledge base for fisheries governance, co-created through collaborative research practices, sustainable fisheries will remain out of reach.