Mexico is the centre of origin, domestication, and diversification of four cultivated species of cucurbits: Cucurbita pepo L., C. ficifolia Bouche, C. moschata (Duch. ex Lam.) Duch. Ex Poir. and C. argyrosperma Huber. Cucurbita: Biology, Distribution and Habitat examines these cucurbits which exhibit high intraspecific diversity. The authors also explore DNA barcoding, a well-established technique to identify and establish evolutionary links and gaps in plants, as well as map their medicinal properties. Studies show that Cucurbita ficifolia has antihyperglycaemic, antilipidemic, antioxidant, anti-tumour, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anthelmintic properties and has beneficial effects on cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. As such, the different effects of Cucurbita ficifolia on non-communicable diseases are discussed. The pumpkin, a common vegetable found in climatic regions around the world, belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. The closing chapter discusses the uses of pumpkin flour in the food industry.