Helicobacter pylori is classified as a gram-negative, spiral and microaerophilic bacterium and considered one of the most common causes of gastric infections worldwide. It was isolated from gastric biopsy specimens from patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers in 1983. Non-pylori Helicobacter species may occasionally colonize the human stomach causing gastritis, but the prevalence is unknown. As such, in this compilation antral biopsies from 484 patients were examined for H. pylori by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the biopsies were examined for Helicobacter spp. by polymerase chain reaction. The authors summarize and compare the historical and novel methods used for the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection. This collection goes on to assess how knowledge about the characteristics, advantages, and limitations of various diagnostic methods for H. pylori allows for the choice of the appropriate technique in the clinical practice or research setting. Lastly, the authors propose that every child with suspected H. pylori infection should be carefully evaluated by a pediatric gastroenterologist before deciding whether to perform upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and any eradication therapy.