This book applies econometric techniques to test the relationship between efficiency and risk within the banking industry in China. Chapters examine how efficiency has been affected by different types of risk-taking behaviour and how risk has been an important determinant of bank efficiency in the context of the series of reforms impacting banks in China since 1978. The author begins by unpacking these reforms and proceeds to explain relevant theories of efficiency and bank risk before reviewing empirical literature in evaluating risk and efficiency in the banking industry. He then investigates the issues of efficiency and risk in the Chinese banking industry using a number of modern econometric techniques. The final chapters present the results of original empirical research conducted by the author, and provide valuable implications to Chinese government as well as banking regulatory authorities to make relevant policies.