This book develops and articulates a new perspective on the relationship between natural resources and development by foregrounding issues of innovation, knowledge, and industrial dynamics. Despite growing academic attention to the relationship between economic development and natural resources in social sciences, the issue has received rather limited attention in the field of Innovation Studies. This is problematic given the centrality of innovation and technological change for growth and development. Against that background, this book makes three contributions. Firstly, it summarizes and synthesizes existing insights about learning and innovation in Natural Resource Based Industries. Secondly, it develops new insights based on original research work. Thirdly, it distils and explains the remaining research challenges in the field. Containing important insights for researchers, businesses, and policymakers, this book will be useful to all those with an interest in navigating a natural resource based development pathway. This book was originally published as a special issue of Innovation and Development.