This book presents a comprehensive overview on origin, structure, properties, modification strategies and applications of the biopolymer lignin. It is organized into four themed parts. The first part focuses on the analysis and characterization of the second most abundant biopolymer. The following part is devoted to the biological aspects of lignin such as biosynthesis and degradation. In the third part, chemical modification strategies and the preparation of composites as well as nano- and microparticles are discussed.The final part addresses the industrial application of lignin and its derivatives, as well as lignin materials. The usage for synthesis of biofuels, fine chemicals and in agriculture and food industry is covered. This book is a comprehensive source for researchers, scientists and engineers working in the field of biopolymers as well as renewable materials and sources.