Relating theory with practice to provide a holistic understanding of the subject and enable critical thinking, this book covers fundamentals of physical metallurgy, materials science, microstructural development, ferrous and nonferrous alloys, mechanical metallurgy, fracture mechanics, thermal processing, surface engineering, and applications. This textbook covers principles, applications, and 200 worked examples/calculations along with 70 MCQs with answers. These attractive features render this volume suitable for recommendation as a textbook of physical metallurgy for undergraduate as well as Master level programs in Metallurgy, Physics, Materials Science, and Mechanical Engineering. The text offers in-depth treatment of design against failure to help readers develop the skill of designing materials and components against failure. The book also includes design problems on corrosion prevention and heat treatments for aerospace and automotive applications. Important materials properties data are provided wherever applicable. Aimed at engineering students and practicing engineers, this text provides readers with a deep understanding of the basics and a practical view of the discipline of metallurgy/materials technology.