This monograph is the first to provide a comprehensive, self-contained and rigorous presentation of some of the most powerful preconditioning methods for solving finite element equations in a common block-matrix factorization framework. The book covers both algorithms and analysis using a common block-matrix factorization approach which emphasizes its unique feature. Topics covered include the classical incomplete block-factorization preconditioners, the most efficient methods such as the multigrid, algebraic multigrid, and domain decomposition. This text can serve as an indispensable reference for researchers, graduate students, and practitioners. It can also be used as a supplementary text for a topics course in preconditioning and/or multigrid methods at the graduate level.