Until recently, it was thought that the adult brain is modifiable only during early stages of ontogenesis. However, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies now indicate that the mature human brain is under certain conditions capable of substantial neuroplastic changes. The concept of plasticity is complex and can be applied to all levels of neural organisation from molecular to systemic level of neural networks. Neuroplasticity reflects the ability of human brain to alter the pattern of neural activation in response to previous experience, and recent findings indicate that the effects of experience can lead to both structural as well as functional reorganisation. This book presents current research in the study of neural plasticity in chronic pain.