Respiration is an area of the medical study that undergoes fast developments. A better understanding of the neural and cellular mechanisms underlying respiratory disorders and lung function is essential for the evidence-based pharmacotherapy and for optimizing the patient care and prophylactic measures to improve the health and quality of life. This comprehensive book is a blend of basic and clinical research. The book is thought to promote the translation of science into clinical practice. The book presents an update on the areas of current research and clinical interest in the neurobiology of the respiratory system. Recent innovations in detection and management of respiratory diseases are described. The book will be a base of reference in the field of respiration for years to come and a source of future research ideas. This book is a required text for respiratory scientists, neuropathologists, and for clinicians searching for ‘bench to bedside’ treatments of lung diseases.