Very little research exists on organization and leadership of elite sports in the Nordic countries. This book is both an attempt to start filling this gap and to stimulate further research in the area. The project was initiated in 2009. We are grateful for support from Centre for training and performance (CTP) at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. 14 researchers from the four Nordic countries have contributed. The book consists of individual contributions, but it has also been a real collaborative effort. In this sense it is more than a scientific anthology. In two extensive workshops the contributors have discussed preliminary versions and attempted to develop a shared format for the presentation of the case studies. In addition the editors have carried out independent research in all four countries, to strengthen the common threads and the comparative perspective. The two editors have contributed equally to the introductory and the final comparative chapters. The editorial process has been an equal partnership. We also have benefitted from criticisms and comments from a number of colleagues as well as key actors within the sport organizations. This book is a research contribution, but hopefully it can also be of use for students as well as practitioners in the field.