This book discusses the current biomaterials used for dental applications and the basic sciences underpinning their application. The most critical structures in the oral cavity are the teeth, which play a central role in speaking, biting, chewing, tasting and swallowing. Teeth consist of three types of tissue: the cementum, enamel and dentin, with bone and gingival tissue serving as supporting structures. Caries, tooth wear, trauma and mechanical defects can lead to severe facial conditions; however, correcting these defects remains a challenge for scientists and dentists. Presenting insights form a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, biology, physiology and clinical science, this book provides a timely review of the principles, processing and application of dental materials.