It is little secret that most archaeologists are uneasy with statistics. Thankfully, in the modern world, quantitative analysis has been made immensely easier by statistical software packages. Software now does virtually all our statistical calculations, removing a great burden for researchers. At the same time, since most statistical analysis now takes place through the pushing of buttons in software packages, new problems and dangers have emerged. How does one know which statistical test to use? How can one tell if certain data violate the assumptions of a particular statistical analysis? Rather than focusing on the mathematics of calculation, this concise handbook selects appropriate forms of analysis and explains the assumptions that underlie them. It deals with fundamental issues, such as what kinds of data are common in the field of archaeology and what are the goals of various forms of analysis. This accessible textbook lends a refreshing playfulness to an often-humorless subject and will be enjoyed by students and professionals alike.