This Brief examines the role of United States private military contractors (PMCs) in human trafficking and forced labor in case studies of Iraq and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Through the lens of these cases, the authors explore the legal and regulatory deficiencies surrounding PMCs in conflict zones, and the role of international criminal law in this context. It uses an integrative model of state corporate crime as a theoretical and analytical framework. This work will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as those involved in the field of criminal law and human rights law, as well as political science. It will also be of interest for policy makers, legislators and others working in international law and diplomacy.