How do NGOs overcome the suspicion of them as "e;Western"e; agents? How do they convince people that contrary to common perceptions, they do not "e;lead women astray from Islam"e;? And how, in the context of poverty, religious fundamentalism, and ethnic conflict, do NGOs convince people that women s issues merit any attention at all? This book uncovers the skillful maneuvering that women s NGOs have to perform in order to survive in a hostile environment. Drawing on interviews, participant observation, and published materials by and about NGOs, this book analyzes the strategies used by Pakistani women s NGOs to advance women s rights in a conservative - and often antagonistic - environment.