The markets for organic and fair trade certified commodities are growing rapidly, with environmentally sound and more equitable certification systems likely to offer benefits for both small-scale farmers and society at large. Despite much debate about their contribution to sustainability, there has been little scientific analysis, so it is vital to assess if it is technically and economically feasible to meet growing consumer demands regarding food safety, quality and ethics through smallholder and marginal producers. Overall, there is a need to explore the potential of these certification systems as emerging areas in research and development cooperation. This book includes: - Worldwide case studies (from the supply side in Asia, Africa, and Latin America; and from the demand side in Europe and North America) to put theory into practice. - Analyses of sustainable development and poverty reduction through organic and fair trade markets. - Insights into the conditions where it is beneficial for developing country smallholder producers to adopt fair trade and organic certification systems. - Investigation into whether consumers will pay more for a product that is both organic and fair trade certified. This book is an important read for researchers and students in agricultural and development economics, and it is also a useful resource for policy makers and practitioners involved in organic and fair trade agriculture.