It is now becoming recognized in the measurement community that it is as important to communicate the uncertainty related to a specific measurement as it is to report the measurement itself. Without knowing the uncertainty, it is impossible for the users of the result to know what confidence can be placed in it; it is also impossible to assess the comparability of different measurements of the same parameter. This volume collects 20 outstanding papers on the topic, mostly published from 1999-2002 in the journal "e;Accreditation and Quality Assurance."e; They provide the rationale for why it is important to evaluate and report the uncertainty of a result in a consistent manner. They also describe the concept of uncertainty, the methodology for evaluating uncertainty, and the advantages of using suitable reference materials. Finally, the benefits to both the analytical laboratory and the user of the results are considered.