This book provides a comprehensive overview of ionic liquid based separation techniques. The glimpse of thermodynamic predictive models along with global optimization techniques will help readers understand the separation techniques at molecular and macroscopic levels. Experimental and characterization techniques are coupled with model based predictions so as to provide multicomponent data for the scientific community. The models will focus more on the a-priori based predictions which gives higher emphasis on hydrogen-bonded systems. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique will also eventually help the readers to apply optimization technique to an extraction process. The overriding goal of this work is to provide pathways for leading engineers and researchers toward a clear understanding and firm grasp of the phase equilibria of Ionic Liquid systems.